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X-Relation-Y Y-Relation-Z
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH GTP-Binding Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Preincubation with pertussis toxin prevented the lithium stimulation of dynorphin and Met-enkephalin, but not beta-endorphin, release, indicating lithium interacts with a G-protein to affect the autoreceptor controlling the release of dynorphin and Met-enkephalin. (PMID: 2172862) 0/0
The potentiation of the behavioral effect of CTX by lithium supports the hypothesis that lithium interacts with G proteins ; (PMID: 9443555) 0/0
Effect of lithium on rod photoreceptor rhodopsin-coupled G-protein (transducin). (PMID: 1496129) 0/0
Lithium was recently demonstrated to inhibit the coupling of both muscarinic cholinergic receptors and beta-adrenergic receptors to pertussis toxin-sensitive and cholera toxin-sensitive G proteins, respectively, thus suggesting alteration of the function of G protein by lithium, as the single site for both the antimanic and antidepressant effects of this drug. (PMID: 2128371) 0/0
Using this method, lithium was recently demonstrated to inhibit the coupling of both muscarinic cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptors to pertussis toxin-sensitive and cholera toxin-sensitive G proteins, respectively, thus suggesting alteration of the function of G protein by lithium, as the single site for both the antimanic and antidepressant effects of this drug. (PMID: 1581423) 0/0
Dual regulation of G proteins and the G-protein-activated K+ channels by lithium. (PMID: 24639496) 0/0
Lithium regulation of G protein mRNA levels in PC12 and GH3 cells: theoretical implications for gene therapy in bipolar illness. (PMID: 8542432) 0/0
OBJECTIVE: Previous investigations have suggested the involvement of signal-transducing guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) both in the mechanism of action of lithium and in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder. (PMID: 9016271) 0/0
Inasmuch as PV and PT are known to inactivate the inhibitory G-proteins, these data suggest G-protein involvement in the elevation of lithium levels by PV and PT. (PMID: 10659986) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH SPANXC|Protein Kinase C Correct? #Y/N
Since increasing evidence suggests that lithium affects PKC function, we investigated the effects of 3 weeks of lithium administration on the immunolabeling of 4 PKC isozymes (alpha, beta, epsilon, and zeta) in particulate and soluble fractions from platelets of 7 patients with probable AD and 6 age-matched controls. (PMID: 8121626) 0/0
We therefore propose that Wnt signaling to beta-catenin consists of two interactive components: one involves inhibition of GSK-3beta and is mimicked by lithium , and the other involves PKC and serves to augment the effects of GSK-3beta inhibition. (PMID: 10749878) 0/0
A number of studies support the notion that lithium interacts with the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, an important mediator of several intracellular responses to neurotransmitter signaling. (PMID: 18456508) 0/0
The present study sought to measure the in vitro effects of lithium on PKC more directly and demonstrated that 5-day in vitro exposure of HL60 cells to either 1 mM or 10 mM lithium chloride dramatically reduces PKC alpha in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. (PMID: 7491404) 0/0
For instance, the effects of lithium on the adenyl cyclase and phospho-inositide pathways, as well as protein kinase C, may serve to dampen excessive excitatory neurotransmission. (PMID: 23371914) 0/0
Modulation of protein kinase C isozymes and substrates by lithium: the role of myo-inositol. (PMID: 8887991) 0/0
Muscarinic receptor regulation and protein kinase C: sites for the action of chronic lithium in the hippocampus. (PMID: 1775588) 0/0
Given the critical role of PKC in regulating neuronal signal transduction, lithium's effects on PKC in the limbic system represent an attractive molecular mechanism for its efficacy in treating both poles of manic-depressive illness. (PMID: 8245981) 0/0
In this paper we critically examine the accumulated preclinical and clinical evidence for the action of lithium in the brain and suggest areas that may be most productive for future investigation, i.e., membrane transport systems, neurotransmitter receptor regulation , second messenger generating systems, protein kinase C (PKC) regulation, and gene expression. (PMID: 9674936) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS SPANXC|Protein Kinase C Correct? #Y/N
Lithium decreases membrane-associated protein kinase C in hippocampus: selectivity for the alpha isozyme. (PMID: 8245981) 0/0
Chronic administration of lithium resulted in a significant decrease in membrane-associated PKC in several hippocampal structures, most notably the subiculum and the CA1 region. (PMID: 8245981) 0/0
Notably, the structurally highly dissimilar antimanic agents lithium and valproate, when administered in therapeutically relevant paradigms, attenuate protein kinase C [corrected] function. (PMID: 17845270) 0/0
OBJECTIVES: Attenuation of protein kinase C (PKC) is a mechanism common to both established (lithium, valproate) and some novel (tamoxifen) antimanic agents. (PMID: 19594501) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES PER2 protein, mammalian Correct? #Y/N
We have recently shown that chronic treatments of lithium upregulates the neuroprotective protein Bcl-2 and increases neuronal survival following deafferentation. (PMID: 18313644) 0/0
It is thus noteworthy that lithium and valproate have recently been demonstrated to robustly increase the expression of the cytoprotective protein bcl-2 in the central nervous system. (PMID: 11063971) 0/0
It is thus noteworthy that lithium and valproate have recently been demonstrated to robustly increase the expression of the cytoprotective protein bcl-2 (an abbreviation for the B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 gene) in the CNS in vivo and in cells of human neuronal origin. (PMID: 12720479) 0/0
The mood-stabilizing agents lithium and valproate robustly increase the levels of the neuroprotective protein bcl-2 in the CNS. (PMID: 9930766) 0/0
Lithium Chloride STIMULATES FOS|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos Correct? #Y/N
Acute injection of a high dose of lithium chloride (LiCl) increases c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). (PMID: 20346924) 0/0
We have shown that 1) intraperitoneal lithium chloride (LiCl) induces transient expression of ICER and c-fos mRNAs in the rat adrenal cortex and increases plasma level of corticosterone; (PMID: 16175568) 0/0
Central infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) produce similar patterns of c-Fos induction in the rat brain. (PMID: 9729361) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES cysteine string protein Correct? #Y/N
Densitometric analysis revealed that lithium upregulated csp mRNA in several brain areas that are important for mood and behavior. (PMID: 12949913) 0/0
Here we report that lithium at 1 mM significantly increased the expression of cysteine string proteins (CSPs) in a pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells) differentiated by nerve growth factor. (PMID: 10820197) 0/0
In this context, we observed recently that lithium at therapeutically relevant concentrations enhanced expression of cysteine string protein (csp) at the level of both mRNA and protein, in cell culture and in rat brain. (PMID: 12949913) 0/0
Lithium COEXISTS_WITH SPANXC|Protein Kinase C Correct? #Y/N
RESULTS: Chronic administration of lithium and valproate produced a striking reduction in protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. (PMID: 11450170) 0/0
RATIONALE: In the context of bipolar disorder (BPD) research it was demonstrated that administration of the structurally dissimilar mood stabilizers lithium and valproate produced a striking reduction in protein kinase C (PKC) in rat brain. (PMID: 17641532) 0/0
Chronic administration of lithium and valproate produced a striking reduction in protein kinase C (PKC) human cells and in rats. (PMID: 15524099) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH FOS|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos Correct? #Y/N
Preliminary evidence suggests that c-fos levels and AP-1 binding may be regulated by lithium and VPA, but the results are inconclusive. (PMID: 9685595) 0/0
Lithium and valproate differentially regulate brain regional expression of phosphorylated CREB and c-Fos . (PMID: 10381542) 0/0
Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the mood stabilizers, lithium and valproate (VPA), regulate the transcription factors, cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), c-Fos and c-Jun, differentially in cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. (PMID: 10381542) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES Heat shock proteins Correct? #Y/N
Mood stabilizing drug lithium increases expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins in primary cultured rat cerebral cortical cells. (PMID: 16236328) 0/0
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that PGA1 and Li have synergistic effects on the enhancement of the expression of HSP , suggesting that the synergistic effects of PGA1 and Li in the rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia may be mediated by the enhancement expression of HSP expression and the downregulation of Apaf-1. (PMID: 17640469) 0/0
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that PGA1 and Li have synergistic effects on the enhancement of the expression of HSP, suggesting that the synergistic effects of PGA1 and Li in the rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia may be mediated by the enhancement expression of HSP expression and the downregulation of Apaf-1. (PMID: 17640469) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES AKT1|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt Correct? #Y/N
Activation of Akt by lithium: pro-survival pathways in aging. (PMID: 19162061) 0/0
Taken together, activation of Akt and CaMKII by lithium was associated with neuroprotective activity in ME-induced neuronal injury. (PMID: 16843447) 0/0
Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (responsible for Akt activation) either by wortmanin or LY-294002 prevented Li(+)- or BIO-induced Akt phosphorylation and reduces cell survival without altering the phosphorylation state of GSK3beta. (PMID: 15572521) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Sorting nexin 3, a protein upregulated by lithium, contains a novel phosphatidylinositol-binding sequence and mediates neurite outgrowth in N1E-115 cells. (PMID: 19576982) 0/0
These results suggest that SNX3, a protein upregulated by lithium, is an as yet unknown regulator of neurite formation and that it contains another functional phosphatidylinositol phosphate-binding region at the C-terminus. (PMID: 19576982) 0/0
In this context, we observed recently that lithium at therapeutically relevant concentrations enhanced expression of cysteine string protein (csp) at the level of both mRNA and protein , in cell culture and in rat brain. (PMID: 12949913) 0/0
Lithium Chloride INHIBITS AKT1|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt Correct? #Y/N
Lithium chloride inhibits TGF-beta1-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation via PI3K/Akt pathway in cultured fibroblasts from Tenon's capsule of the human eye. (PMID: 24563318) 0/0
The inhibition of Akt by SH6 and GSK3beta by lithium chloride (LiCl) could respectively induce and inhibit the STS-mediated e-lam formation, cell migration and STC1 gene expression. (PMID: 22069492) 0/0
The non-specific small-molecule GSK-3beta inhibitor, lithium chloride (LiCl), and the specific Akt inhibitor , AktX, were used to treat U87MG and U87MG.Delta2-7 human glioma cell lines. (PMID: 22999562) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS MAPT|tau Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Analysis of tau levels and phosphorylation by western-blot assays showed that lithium and 6-BIO dose-dependently decreased both tau protein levels and tau phosphorylation. (PMID: 19071093) 0/0
Here, we show that exposure of cultured cortical neurons to lithium decreased tau protein levels. (PMID: 18289787) 0/0
Our findings raise the possibility that lithium could exert its neuroprotective effect against Abeta toxicity through the downregulation of tau proteins and that, at least, by acting at the level of tau mRNA. (PMID: 18289787) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES VEGF protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Lithium upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor in brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. (PMID: 18974377) 0/0
CONCLUSIONS: Lithium promotes VEGF expression through PI3-K/GSK-3beta-dependent and -independent pathways in brain endothelium and astrocytes, respectively. (PMID: 18974377) 0/0
Two GSK-3-regulated pro-angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor were induced by lithium. (PMID: 21886605) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Furthermore, the mood stabilizing agents;s action mechanism, like lithium and valproic acid, implies the inhibition of this protein . (PMID: 16847474) 0/0
The incorporation of tryptophan and tyrosine into the proteins of the slices was inhibited by lithium. (PMID: 460529) 0/0
These results suggest that a therapeutic level of lithium may downregulate the synthesis of proteins whose translation depends on eIF-2B. (PMID: 12098503) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH PROTEIN KINASE Correct? #Y/N
Effect of rubidium, lithium and cesium on brain ATPase and protein kinases. (PMID: 197447) 0/0
The authors studied the effect of rubidium, lithium and cesium on the ATPase system and c-AMP protein kinase in brain. (PMID: 197447) 0/0
The present study was undertaken to explore lithium effects of the MEK/ERK cascade of protein kinases in astrocytes and neurons. (PMID: 14511119) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Correct? #Y/N
These data suggest a direct effect of lithium on the cAMP dependent protein kinase. (PMID: 8761031) 0/0
Effects of lithium on cAMP-dependent protein kinase in rat brain. (PMID: 9653711) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES GTP-Binding Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Lithium was known to inhibit both adrenergic and cholinergic agonist-induced activation of G-proteins in cerebral cortex. (PMID: 1496129) 0/0
Lithium , an inhibitor of cAMP-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate accumulation in Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits activation of guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins , reduces activation of adenylylcyclase, but potentiates activation of guanylyl cyclase by cAMP. (PMID: 1356770) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS GTP-Binding Proteins Correct? #Y/N
We have recently found that lithium attenuates the function of G proteins , suggesting these proteins as the common site for both the antimanic and antidepressant therapeutic effects of lithium. (PMID: 2171965) 0/0
In the present study, we show that inhibition by lithium of muscarinic receptor-coupled G protein function is also selective to the CNS. (PMID: 1581423) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS AKT1|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt Correct? #Y/N
The protective effects of lithium in vitro were blocked by LY294002, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. (PMID: 12498789) 0/0
Our in vitro findings, using cerebellar granule neurons, demonstrate that lithium (1-10mM) exerts neuroprotective effects in young cultures (7-8 days) against LY294002-induced Akt inhibition . (PMID: 19162061) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH AKT1|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt Correct? #Y/N
We found that although Akt is required for the survival mediated by IGF-1 and lithium, it is dispensable for the survival mediated by high potassium and cAMP. (PMID: 15306131) 0/0
Regulation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta phosphorylation by sodium valproate and lithium. (PMID: 12504922) 0/0
Lithium NEG_STIMULATES protein-serine-threonine phosphatase Correct? #Y/N
Imipramine, but not lithium , induces the serine/threonine phosphatase activity of calcineurin without affecting its mRNA expression in the rat brain. (PMID: 12122493) 0/0
Lithium , but not valproate, induces the serine/threonine phosphatase activity of protein phosphatase 2A in the rat brain, without affecting its expression. (PMID: 12658368) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES FOS|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos Correct? #Y/N
In contrast to lithium , chronic (1 week) treatment with VPA led to continued induction of c-Fos , in addition to induction of c-Jun immunoreactivity and a 33-35 kDa band previously identified as chronic FRA. (PMID: 9685595) 0/0
Understanding the activation of immediate-early genes such as c-fos or ICER in response to a single LiCl injection is an important first step in understanding the long-term changes in gene expression elicited by lithium that are involved in its therapeutic and toxic effect. (PMID: 16175568) 0/0
Lithium Chloride STIMULATES FOS|FOS Protein Correct? #Y/N
A low dose of lithium chloride selectively induces Fos protein in the central nucleus of the amygdala of rat brain. (PMID: 10800751) 0/0
Separate populations of neurons within the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of the rat project to vagal and thoracic autonomic preganglionic levels and express c-Fos protein induced by lithium chloride. (PMID: 9625354) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Membrane Transport Proteins Correct? #Y/N
In contrast, major and minor tranquilizers, lithium and verapamil, a blocker of membrane steroid transporter , were without effect. (PMID: 12757900) 0/0
Lithium (Li) is a known potent inhibitor of these transporters . (PMID: 23675140) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Cyclic AMP-Responsive DNA-Binding Protein Correct? #Y/N
Lithium and valproate differentially regulate brain regional expression of phosphorylated CREB and c-Fos. (PMID: 10381542) 0/0
Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the mood stabilizers, lithium and valproate (VPA), regulate the transcription factors, cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), c-Fos and c-Jun, differentially in cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. (PMID: 10381542) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Protein phosphatase Correct? #Y/N
Lithium inhibits ceramide- and etoposide-induced protein phosphatase 2A methylation, Bcl-2 dephosphorylation, caspase-2 activation, and apoptosis. (PMID: 16682503) 0/0
Overexpression of PP2A resulted in caspase-2 activation, mitochondrial damage, and cell apoptosis that were inhibited by okadaic acid (OA) and lithium. (PMID: 16682503) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH TNF|TNF protein, human Correct? #Y/N
We conclude that the mood stabilizers carbamazepine and lithium have similar effects on the TNF-alpha system and do not affect leptin levels. (PMID: 15565432) 0/0
Our results further indicate that the effect of Li on TNFalpha occurs at the post-transcriptional level. (PMID: 23904208) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Though the precise mechanism of action is not clear, Lithium can directly or indirectly modulate proteins involved in neuronal survival/differentiation which may account for its neuroprotective effects. (PMID: 23439971) 0/0
Using PC12 cells to study cellular and molecular actions of Li, we previously reported that Li modulates the expression of proteins associated with large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs; organelles typically containing monoamines, neuropeptides and other cargo proteins). (PMID: 16111479) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH SLC5A5|SLC5A5 protein, human Correct? #Y/N
In an in vitro study, iodide uptake was studied in the benign rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, in the polarized non-thyroid MDCK cell line, stably transfected with human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) to study the effects of lithium on NIS in a non-thyroid background, and the human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC133-hNIS to study lithium effects in a background of DTC. (PMID: 16712662) 0/0
We performed an in vitro study specifically aimed at examining the effects of lithium on the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). (PMID: 16712662) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH APP|APP protein, human Correct? #Y/N
We therefore investigated the effect of lithium on Abeta peptide secretion as well as intracellular Abeta peptides in our untransfected primary cell culture system. (PMID: 16908996) 0/0
We therefore investigated the effect of lithium on Abeta peptide secretion as well as intracellular Abeta peptides in our untransfected primary cell culture system. (PMID: 16908996) 0/0
Lithium NEG_INTERACTS_WITH Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Following absorption into the body, lithium does not bind to proteins . (PMID: 3529002) 0/0
Moreover, lithium did not alter the expression of proteins associated with small-clear, synaptic-like vesicles (SSV) in these cells. (PMID: 12955095) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH SPANXC|protein kinase C kinase Correct? #Y/N
Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that chronic, but not acute, exposure to therapeutic concentrations of lithium significantly reduces the expression of the protein kinase C (PKC) substrate MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) in the rat hippocampus and an immortalized hippocampal cell line (HN33). (PMID: 8970502) 0/0
CONCLUSION: These data provide evidence that, like lithium, chronic exposure to valproate produces a significant time-dependent down-regulation of the PKC substrate MARCKS, whereas carbamazepine is without effect. (PMID: 8970502) 0/0
Lithium Carbonate INTERACTS_WITH Binding Protein Correct? #Y/N
The study was done to determine whether long-term treatment with lithium carbonate affected the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein in platelet membranes from patients with manic depression. (PMID: 2127736) 0/0
Lithium Chloride INHIBITS SPANXC|Protein Kinase C Alpha Correct? #Y/N
The present study sought to measure the in vitro effects of lithium on PKC more directly and demonstrated that 5-day in vitro exposure of HL60 cells to either 1 mM or 10 mM lithium chloride dramatically reduces PKC alpha in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. (PMID: 7491404) 0/0
Lithium Chloride STIMULATES Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Correct? #Y/N
Chronic administration of lithium chloride increases immunodetectable glial fibrillary acidic protein in the rat hippocampus. (PMID: 7931315) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Correct? #Y/N
This effect of lithium was apparently not confined to the hippocampus because the in vitro rate of phosphorylation of GFAP in caudate slices was also increased in the treated rats. (PMID: 7931315) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Cytoskeletal Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Lithium affects the polymerization mechanism of some cytoskeletal proteins in vitro, so its biological activity could also reflect lithium influence on assembly processes. (PMID: 1994029) 0/0
Lithium Chloride INHIBITS protein-serine-threonine phosphatase Correct? #Y/N
Calyculin A, another serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, also reduced acetyl-LDL binding, whereas lithium chloride, an inositol phosphatase inhibitor, did not. (PMID: 8728320) 0/0
Lithium NEG_INTERACTS_WITH PTH|PTH protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Lithium had no effect on basal fasting PTH or nephrogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP). (PMID: 3587184) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH guanine nucleotide binding protein Correct? #Y/N
OBJECTIVE: Previous investigations have suggested the involvement of signal-transducing guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) both in the mechanism of action of lithium and in the pathophysiology of bipolar affective disorder. (PMID: 9016271) 0/0
Lithium COEXISTS_WITH GTP-Binding Proteins Correct? #Y/N
In vivo microdialysis of cyclic AMP from prefrontal cortex complemented by ex vivo measures was used to investigate the possibility that lithium produces functional changes in G proteins that could account for its effects on adenylate cyclase activity. (PMID: 1319465) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH GNAI1|GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi Correct? #Y/N
Chronic lithium regulates the expression of adenylate cyclase and Gi-protein alpha subunit in rat cerebral cortex. (PMID: 1720545) 0/0
Lithium NEG_INTERACTS_WITH Protein Subunits Correct? #Y/N
Chronic lithium did not alter levels of other G-protein subunits , including Go alpha, Gs alpha, and G beta. (PMID: 1720545) 0/0
sodium-lithium countertransporter ISA Membrane Transport Proteins Correct? #Y/N
The results suggest that the SLC transporter is associated with the band 3 protein in the plasma membrane and demonstrate that a sulfhydryl group is essential for transport function. (PMID: 8484966) 0/0
Lithium salt INTERACTS_WITH GTP-Binding Proteins Correct? #Y/N
The expression pattern of G-olf alpha in the brain, its coupling to dopamine receptors, and the effects of lithium salts on G-proteins all support G-olf alpha as a candidate gene for BPAD. (PMID: 8886169) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS guanine nucleotide binding protein Correct? #Y/N
In a recent study, we found that lithium inhibits the function of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins , implicating G proteins as the common site for both the antimanic and antidepressant therapeutic effects of lithium. (PMID: 1901735) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi Correct? #Y/N
The function of Gs and Gi alpha subunits has now been shown to be affected by lithium. (PMID: 7531727) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins Correct? #Y/N
We investigated the regulatory effect of the dopaminergic agent L-dopa, the mood stabilizer lithium and the nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine on brain vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) expression. (PMID: 11702019) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES SPANXC|Protein Kinase C Correct? #Y/N
AP-1 DNA binding activity stimulated by carbachol or by phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro31-8220, but phorbol ester-stimulated AP-1 activation was unaltered by 7-day pretreatments with lithium or carbamazepine. (PMID: 10529472) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha Correct? #Y/N
Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin results in phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha, whereas treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor lithium results in dephosphorylation of C/EBPalpha. (PMID: 10567568) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES PMEL|SILV protein, human Correct? #Y/N
While studies of the effects of lithium on immune function found that lithium increased serum SIL-2RS in normal volunteers and seemed to normalize immune function in bipolar patients. (PMID: 10404471) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES bone morphogenetic protein 2 Correct? #Y/N
Furthermore, lithium decreased BMP-2 upregulation of total and nuclear levels of LEF-1 and beta-catenin as well as their interaction during later chondrogenesis; (PMID: 11835406) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Correct? #Y/N
Lithium activates the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases in vitro and in the CNS in vivo. (PMID: 10582587) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH glycosylated serum protein Correct? #Y/N
Supplementation with lithium carbonate eliminated tissue lithium deficiency, and had a normalizing effect on blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein levels. (PMID: 9363324) 0/0
Lithium Chloride INHIBITS GTP-Binding Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Inclusion of 100 mM LiCl in intracellular recording electrodes was shown to block postsynaptic G-proteins by bath-application of baclofen, an agonist at the G-protein linked gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAB) receptor. (PMID: 8390912) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Complement System Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Degradation of uronic acids by lithium decreased the anti-complementary and mitogenic activities of PG-1c. (PMID: 8720381) 0/0
Lithium COEXISTS_WITH dicarboxylate-binding protein Correct? #Y/N
Lithium , which specifically competes for sodium sites in the dicarboxylic acid transporter , substantially blocked the protective effect of Na and succinate. (PMID: 6541702) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Complement System Proteins Correct? #Y/N
These studies demonstrated that lithium , at safe therapeutic levels (0.4-0.9 mmol/liter), significantly altered complement conversion and had a marked affect on chemiluminescence activity by normal cells. (PMID: 3957422) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins Correct? #Y/N
We propose that the neuroprotective effect of lithium involves the modulation of apoptosis-regulatory proteins present in the subcellular organelles of rabbit brain. (PMID: 12091474) 0/0
Lithium Chloride COEXISTS_WITH SPANXC|Protein Kinase C Correct? #Y/N
Lithium chloride at a therapeutic concentration reduces Ca2+ response in protein kinase C down-regulated human astrocytoma cells. (PMID: 12020677) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt Correct? #Y/N
Lithium blocks the PKB and GSK3 dephosphorylation induced by ceramide through protein phosphatase-2A. (PMID: 11897496) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Protein Kinase C Alpha Correct? #Y/N
We have found that the chronic administration of the 2 structurally highly dissimilar agents, lithium and valproate, brings about a strikingly similar reduction in protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and epsilon isozymes in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. (PMID: 10073385) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Protein phosphatase Correct? #Y/N
OBJECTIVES: The present work was designed to test the effect of lithium on protein phosphatases in vitro and in vivo. (PMID: 12172691) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Correct? #Y/N
Lithium appeared to target specific PTPase (s) as it stimulated membrane-associated PTPase activity without affecting cytosolic or nuclear enzymatic activities. (PMID: 12172691) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH DIPP2 protein, rat Correct? #Y/N
The effect of lithium on rDIPP2 mRNA expression was not shared by two other anticonvulsant mood stabilizers, carbamazepine and valproate. (PMID: 11331144) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES Protein phosphatase Correct? #Y/N
However, administration of lithium for 1 or 14 days significantly upregulated the activity of PP2A in the frontal cortex. (PMID: 12658368) 0/0
Lithium NEG_STIMULATES Protein phosphatase Correct? #Y/N
These findings indicate that lithium , but not valproate, upregulated the activity of PP2A in the rat brain. (PMID: 12658368) 0/0
Lithium COEXISTS_WITH FOS|FOS Protein Correct? #Y/N
The effects of lithium were accompanied by expression of the cellular activation marker Fos proteins within most oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons and a significant increase in oxytocin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. (PMID: 11739594) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Protein Family Correct? #Y/N
Discovery of a structurally conserved metal-dependent lithium -inhibited phosphomonoesterase protein family has identified several potential cellular targets of lithium as used to treat manic depression. (PMID: 10224133) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Insulin-Like Growth-Factor Binding Protein 1 Correct? #Y/N
These findings suggest that GSK-3 inhibition, or another pathway activated by lithium , may be involved in a pathway controlling IGFBP-1 , inhibiting synthesis when insulin activity is absent or impaired. (PMID: 11739024) 0/0
Lithium COEXISTS_WITH GFAP|Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Correct? #Y/N
Alterations induced by lithium in gfap expression and in the proteinic composition of glial cells in vitro. (PMID: 12413149) 0/0
Lithium COEXISTS_WITH Insulin-Like Growth-Factor Binding Protein 1 Correct? #Y/N
The changes in serum leptin level and erythrocyte SLC activity were positively correlated, and the change in serum IGFBP-1 level was negatively correlated, correlated with changes in measures of glucose metabolism. (PMID: 15634721) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS CYP2C9|CYP2C9 protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Recent drug-drug interaction studies have demonstrated that meloxicam interacts with some medications, including cholestyramine, lithium and some inhibitors of cytochrome P450 -2C9 and -3A4. (PMID: 16197363) 0/0
Lithium Chloride STIMULATES Neurofilament Proteins Correct? #Y/N
However, mRNA levels of genes encoding synaptophysin and the 160 kDa neurofilament protein were increased by high LiCl concentrations, whereas mRNA levels of mash-1 and Engrailed-1 were decreased, suggesting a specific influence of lithium on neuronal differentiation. (PMID: 11330862) 0/0
Lithium Chloride STIMULATES TAL1|TAL1 protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Combination of all-trans retinoic acid and lithium chloride surmounts a retinoid differentiation block induced by expression of Scl and Rbtn2 transcription factors in myeloid leukemia cells. (PMID: 15109540) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Protein Isoforms Correct? #Y/N
Like lithium , VPA reduces the activity of PKC and reduces the protein levels of different PKC isoforms , however the effects of VPA appear to be largely independent of myoinositol. (PMID: 12890311) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Correct? #Y/N
In contrast, both lithium and VPA activate ERK/MAPK in rat primary cortical neurons. (PMID: 15654930) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Rat Protein Correct? #Y/N
[Effects of lithium on rat hippocampus cholecystokinin protein expression and learning and memory]. (PMID: 16535834) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Correct? #Y/N
We demonstrate that normal expression patterns of key signaling molecules as Notch-1 and Dkk-1 are altered in the anterior mesoderm within the heart fields by a one-time exposure to lithium , or by noggin inhibition of BMP , at Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage 3 during chick embryonic development. (PMID: 16804895) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH NCS-1 protein Correct? #Y/N
Lithium inhibited the enhancing effect of NCS-1 on InsP3R1 function, suggesting that InsP3R1/NCS-1 interaction is an essential component of the pathomechanism of bipolar disorder. (PMID: 16691292) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES BCL-2 Protein Correct? #Y/N
Chronic administration of lithium dramatically increased the expression of bcl-2 protein in nucleus magnocellularis neurons. (PMID: 16413133) 0/0
Lithium Chloride INHIBITS ASCL1|ASCL1 protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Furthermore, inhibition of GSK3beta by LiCl was associated with marked suppression of CgA and Mash1 levels. (PMID: 17263970) 0/0
Lithium Chloride STIMULATES APP|APP protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Lithium chloride increases the production of amyloid-beta peptide independently from its inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3. (PMID: 16014628) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases Correct? #Y/N
BACKGROUND: Glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3B) is a serine/threonine kinase which is directly inhibited by lithium. (PMID: 17628506) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES HSP90B2P|Heat-Shock Proteins 70 Correct? #Y/N
The induction of HSP70 and GRP78 was enhanced by lithium. (PMID: 16797496) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH cysteine string protein Correct? #Y/N
We were interested whether lithium modulates expression of csp in specific brain regions. (PMID: 12949913) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV Correct? #Y/N
These data suggest for the first time the involvement of CaMKIV in the mechanism of action of lithium. (PMID: 16923323) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS rev Protein Correct? #Y/N
Furthermore, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) contributes to pai-1 repression by phosphorylating and stabilizing Rev-erb alpha protein, which can be blocked by lithium. (PMID: 16968709) 0/0
Lithium NEG_INTERACTS_WITH serotonin-binding protein Correct? #Y/N
It is concluded that the antagonism between reserpine and lithium does not involve the serotonin binding protein but may be due to the lithium-induced reduction of reserpine levels. (PMID: 2412842) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH PTH|PTH protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Lithium's effect of parathyroid hormone . (PMID: 7212107) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES TGFB1|TGFB1 protein, human Correct? #Y/N
Different drugs, such as lithium or group II mGlu receptor agonists are able to increase TGF-beta1 levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and might be considered as new neuroprotective tools against Abeta-induced neurodegeneration. (PMID: 19925479) 0/0
Lithium Chloride INHIBITS CRK|CRK protein, human Correct? #Y/N
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates for the first time that LiCl can protect against cartilage damage induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and indicates that LiCl-mediated cartilage protection is not via a GSK-3-dependent mechanism, but potentially via inhibition of the p38 pathway. (PMID: 20634235) 0/0
Lithium NEG_INTERACTS_WITH VEGF protein, human Correct? #Y/N
To test whether increased urinary flow leads to microvascular injury, we induced postnatal polyuria with either lithium or adrenalectomy, but these did not alter vascular endothelial growth factor expression or vasa recta organization. (PMID: 20056745) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS PROTEIN KINASE Correct? #Y/N
Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain. (PMID: 18190791) 0/0
Lithium Chloride INTERACTS_WITH AKT1|Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt Correct? #Y/N
The enhanced CD86 expression by LiCl involves the PI3K/AKT and GSK-3beta pathway. (PMID: 20672290) 0/0
Lithium INHIBITS bone morphogenetic protein 2 Correct? #Y/N
We demonstrate here that lithium inhibits BMP-2 signaling to affect osteogenic differentiation in both cell lines. (PMID: 20932949) 0/0
Lithium INTERACTS_WITH Signaling Protein Correct? #Y/N
In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. (PMID: 20661453) 0/0
Lithium COEXISTS_WITH MAPT|tau Proteins Correct? #Y/N
Moreover, prior exposure to lithium , at concentrations effective in reducing tau protein levels, markedly reduced pre-aggregated Abeta-induced neuronal apoptosis. (PMID: 18289787) 0/0
Lithium STIMULATES CREB1|Cyclic AMP-Responsive DNA-Binding Protein Correct? #Y/N
The anti-inflammatory effect of lithium is thought to involve activation of the transcription factor CREB , although the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. (PMID: 19159680) 0/0
Proteins ASSOCIATED_WITH Brugada syndrome Correct? #Y/N
On the light of these results, we hypothesize that these proteins might be considered as potential markers for the identification of disease status in BS . (PMID: 23276942) 0/0